Public participation in decision making: a three step procedure

Authors: Ortwin Renn, Thomas Webler, Horst Rakel, Peter Dienel and Branden Johnson (Policy Sciences 26: 189-214, 1993)


This report introduces a novel model of public participation in political decisions, based on three simple steps.

Structured in three consecutive steps, the model is based on the view that stakeholders, experts and citizens should each contribute to the planning effort based on their particular expertise and experience. Stakeholders can present concerns and develop evaluation criteria since their interests are at stake. Experts are necessary to provide the data base and to consider the relationship between options and impacts. Citizens are the potential victims or benefactors so are the best judges to assess the different options available on the basis of the concerns and impacts revealed through the other two groups.

Full report can be downloaded HERE

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